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  • 鋼結構工程施工質量控制要點
  • 本站編輯:杭州科寶鋼業有限公司發布日期:2019-10-27 16:27 瀏覽次數:
 隨著現代經濟的不斷發展,鋼結構工程以其施工速度快、周期短、強度高、便于預制、安裝、適用高層大跨度等的優越性已在工程領域廣泛應用。而過去,我國大量采用鋼筋混凝土結構和預應力混凝土結構,現場工程技術人員比較缺乏鋼結構工程的施工經驗,施工質量的好壞直接影響工程結構的安全。因而,鋼結構工程的質量問題也越來越引起人們的重視,因此加強鋼結構工程施工質量控制,具有很重要的現實意義和必要性。
 
 
施工質量控制要點
 
1施工準備......
 
施工準備是建設施工創造必須條件,認真、細致、深入地做好施工準備工作,對充分發揮人的積極因素,合理組織人力、物力,加快工程進度,提供施工質量,節約投資和材料,對順利完成鋼結構建設任務起著重要的作用。
 
1.1認真做好施工圖紙的會審和交底工作
 
圖紙是工程施工的依據,工程項目技術負責人應組織有關技術人員對圖紙進行分工審閱和消化,其目的一是使施工單位和各參建單位熟悉設計圖紙,了解工程特點和設計意圖,找出需要解決的技術難題,并制定解決方案;二是為了解決圖紙中存在的問題,減少圖紙的差錯,將圖紙中的質量隱患消滅在萌芽之中。同時做好技術交底,做好施工和設計的結合、做好鋼結構吊裝與土建施工、鋼結構和混凝土構預制的結合。
 
1.2認真編制鋼結構工程施工組織設計
 
施工組織設計是施工單位編制的指導工程施工全過程各項活動的重要綜合性技術文件,是一個科學的管理方法。施工單位在編制施工組織和施工方案時,須從人、機、料、法、環五個方面制定切實可行的具體實施細則,落實計劃,落實組織人員,落實自檢、互檢和專檢,把容易出現的質量問題全部納入受控狀態,確保方案技術措施得力、可行。在編制和貫徹施工組織設計過程中應做到廣泛深入的研究,向施工人員交底,做到人人把關。鋼結構工程要針對制作階段和安裝階段分別編制制作工藝和安裝施工組織設計。其中制作工藝內容應包括制作階段各工序、各分項的質量標準、技術要求,以及為保證產品質量而制訂的各項具體措施。鋼結構安裝工程施工組織設計內容有質量保證體系和技術管理體系的建立、質量、進度控制的措施和方法、施工工期的安排等。
 
2重視鋼結構基礎工程的質量控制......
 
鋼結構基礎工程的質量控制一般指鋼結構基礎預埋螺栓的質量控制,預埋螺栓是整個工程施工的第一步,也是非常關鍵的一步,是整個工程的基礎。施工基礎預埋螺栓時首先熟悉圖紙,了解圖紙的意圖,應制作安裝模板。預埋螺栓用兩安裝模板及鋼筋定位在柱子的主筋和模板上,保證預埋螺栓不受土建澆注混凝土施工而移位。這樣每組螺栓之間的間距、高低可控制在允許的誤差范圍內;同時,保護好螺栓絲扣,在混凝土澆筑時不被損壞。土建工程完工后,用經緯儀和水準儀對地腳螺栓的標高、軸線進行復查,并做好記錄。并交下一道工序驗收。  
 
 
3 鋼結構制作工程質量控制......
 
鋼結構工程的施工通常要經過工廠制作和現場安裝兩個階段。鋼結構工程有大部分時間是在工廠車間內部進行,由于鋼結構構件在工廠內加工制造的質量好壞,對鋼結構工程的現場安裝及整體結構的安全穩定至關重要。因此鋼結構制作生產廠家必須具備相應企業資質、生產規模、技術能力、機械設備及先進的工藝水平。
 
鋼結構一般制作工藝流程分為:放樣→下料→拼板→切割→組立→埋弧焊接→鉆孔→組裝→矯正成型→鉚工零配件下料→制作組裝→焊接和焊接檢驗→防銹處理、涂裝、編號→構件驗收出廠。在鋼結構制作中,應根據鋼結構制作工藝流程,抓住關鍵工序進行質量控制,如控制關鍵零件的加工,主要構件的工藝、措施,所采用的加工設備、工藝裝備等。
 
4 重視焊接工程質量控制......
 
在鋼結構制作和安裝工程工程中焊接工程是最重要的環節,必須重視焊接工程質量控制。目前,鋼結構在生產過程中大部分采用具自動埋弧焊機,部分具備半自動氣體保護焊機,個別部位采用手工施焊。
 
焊接質量問題較多存在于手工焊縫,這些問題有:焊瘤、夾渣、氣孔、沒焊透、咬邊、錯邊、焊縫尺寸偏差大、不用引弧板、焊接變形不矯正、飛濺物清理不凈等。鑒于這種情況,鋼結構施焊前,對焊條的合格證要進行檢查,按說明書要求使用,焊工必須持證上崗證,焊縫表面不得有裂紋、焊瘤,一、二級焊縫不得有氣孔、夾渣、弧坑裂紋,一級焊縫不得有咬邊、未滿焊等缺陷,一、二級焊縫按要求進行無損檢測,在規定的焊縫及部位要檢查焊工的鋼印。不合格的焊縫不得擅自處理,定出修改工藝后再處理,同一部位的焊縫返修次數不宜超過2次。    
 
 
5 鋼構件安裝質量控制......
 
鋼結構在工程制作結束后,進入現場安裝。鋼結構安裝前,應對構件的質量進行檢查,構件的永久變形和缺陷超出允許值時,應進行處理。
 
鋼柱安裝要檢查柱底板下的墊鐵是否墊實、墊平,防止柱底板下地腳螺栓失穩;控制柱是否垂直和有無位移,安裝工程中,在結構尚未形成穩定體系前,應采取臨時支護措施。
 
當鋼結構安裝形成空間固定單元,并進行驗收合格后,要求施工單位及時將柱底板和基礎頂面的空間用膨脹混凝土二次澆筑密實。最后,還要檢查鋼結構主體結構的垂直度和整體平面彎曲等。
 
6 鋼結構緊固件連接的質量控制......
 
鋼結構緊固件連接的質量控制主要強調高強度螺栓連接的質量控制。高強度螺栓連接工程的施工質量的控制從以下幾個方面完成:
 
6.1 首先鋼結構工程必須注意高強螺栓摩擦面的加工質量及安裝前的保護,防止污染、銹蝕。并在安裝前進行高強螺栓摩擦面的抗滑移系數試驗、檢查高強螺栓出廠證明、批號,對不同批號的高強螺栓定期抽做軸力試驗。
 
 6.2 高強螺栓安裝要求自由穿入,不得敲打和擴孔;因此在鋼結構制作時應準備一定的胎架模具以控制其變形,并在構件運輸時采取切實可行的固定措施以保證其尺寸穩定性。  
 
6.3 鋼結構安裝過程中板疊接觸面應平整,接觸面必須大于75%,邊緣縫隙不得大于0.8mm。對高強螺栓安裝工藝、包括操作順序、安裝方法、緊固順序、初擰、終擰進行嚴格控制檢查,擰螺栓的扭力扳手應進行標定等。終擰完畢應逐個檢查,對欠擰、超擰的應進行補擰或更換。 
 
 
7 鋼結構除銹及涂裝工程......
 
鋼結構除銹和涂裝是目前鋼結構工程最易忽視的環節。鋼結構除銹分為人工除銹和機械除銹,施工人員要根據圖紙要求以及除銹等級采用不同除銹方法。涂刷工程質量的控制應做到在鋼結構涂刷前,涂刷的構件表面不得有焊渣、油污、水和毛刺等異物,涂刷遍數和厚度應符合設計要求。對涂裝材料必須有合格證,防火涂料涂裝工程必須由消防部位批準的施工單位施工。
 
8 彩鋼板施工質量控制......
 
彩鋼板工程是鋼結構工程中另一重要部分。其施工質量的好壞直接影響鋼結構工程的使用。目前彩鋼板有很多種類。
 
但彩鋼板施工問題比較集中,如:彩板接縫、彩板配件制作安裝等節點處理不細、不可靠,維護結構滲漏,彩板觀感質量不平整、變形、劃傷、污染現象等。
 
因此壓型彩板安裝質量控制主要包括:壓型彩板進場后,要進行外觀和合格證的檢查,并復核與壓型板施工安裝有關鋼構件的安裝精度,清除檁條的安裝時的焊縫藥皮和飛濺物,并涂刷防銹漆進行防腐處理。彩板安裝時,要編制合理的安裝工藝順序等。    
 
鋼結構工程制作與安裝單位如何在施工中實施質量控制,主要是通過有關部門具有質控職能的專職和兼職人員在質量控制中履行自己的職責。其質量控制的方法主要是通過編制和審核有關技術文件、報告、通過現場過程檢查和最終檢驗以及進行必要的試驗等方法進行。
With the continuous development of modern economy, steel structure engineering has been widely used in the field of engineering because of its advantages of fast construction speed, short period, high intensity, convenient prefabrication, installation, and application of high floor and large span. In the past, a large number of reinforced concrete structures and prestressed concrete structures were used in our country. Therefore, the quality problem of steel structure engineering also attracts people's attention more and more. Therefore, it is of great practical significance and necessity to strengthen the quality control of steel structure engineering construction.
 
 
 
 
 
Key points of construction quality control
 
 
 
1 construction preparation......
 
 
 
Construction preparation is the construction construction to create the necessary conditions, serious, meticulous, in-depth construction preparation work, to give full play to the positive factors of people, reasonable organization of human and material resources, speed up the progress of the project, provide construction quality, save investment and materials, for the smooth completion of the steel structure construction task plays an important role.
 
 
 
1.1 do a good job in the joint review and disclosure of construction drawings
 
 
 
Drawings are the basis of engineering construction, engineering project technical person in charge should organize relevant technical personnel to conduct division of labor review and digestion of drawings, the purpose of which is to make the construction unit and each participating unit familiar with the design drawings, understand the engineering characteristics and design intention, find out the technical problems to be solved, and develop solutions; The second is to solve the problems existing in the drawing, reduce the drawing errors, the drawing quality hidden trouble in the bud. At the same time, technical disclosure, the combination of construction and design, lifting steel structure and civil construction, steel structure and concrete prefabricated combination.
 
 
 
1.2 work out the construction organization and design of steel structure engineering carefully
 
 
 
Construction organization design is an important comprehensive technical document compiled by the construction unit to guide the whole process of engineering construction. It is a scientific management method. Construction units in the formulation of construction organization and construction plan, must be from man, machine, material, method, ring five aspects to establish the feasible concrete detailed rules for the implementation, the implementation of the plan, the implementation of the organization, to carry out the self-inspection, mutual inspection and ZhuanJian, all easy to appear the quality problem in controlled state, to ensure that the technical measures are effective and feasible. In the preparation and implementation of the construction organization design process should be done extensive and in-depth research, to the construction personnel, to do everyone check. In steel structure engineering, the fabrication process and installation construction organization design should be worked out respectively for the fabrication stage and installation stage. The content of the production process shall include the quality standards and technical requirements of each production stage, as well as the specific measures to ensure the quality of the product. The construction organization design of steel structure installation project includes the establishment of quality assurance system and technical management system, the measures and methods of quality and progress control, and the arrangement of construction period.
 
 
 
2 attach importance to the quality control of steel structure foundation engineering......
 
 
 
The quality control of steel structure foundation project generally refers to the quality control of embedded bolts of steel structure foundation. Embedded bolts are the first step of the whole project construction and also a very critical step. They are the foundation of the whole project. When construction foundation embedded bolts, first get familiar with the drawing, understand the intention of the drawing, should make the installation template. The embedded bolts are positioned on the main bar and the formwork of the column with two mounting formwork and reinforcing steel bars to ensure that the embedded bolts are not displaced by the construction of civil concrete. In this way, the spacing and height between each set of bolts can be controlled within the allowable error range; At the same time, protect the bolt thread from damage during concrete pouring. After the completion of civil engineering, use theodolite and level to check the elevation and axis of anchor bolts and make a record. And handed over a process acceptance.   
 
 
 
 
 
3 steel structure production engineering quality control......
 
 
 
The construction of steel structure engineering usually goes through two stages: factory fabrication and site installation. Most of the steel structure engineering is carried out in the factory workshop. Due to the quality of the steel structure components processed and manufactured in the factory, the on-site installation of the steel structure engineering and the safety and stability of the overall structure are of great importance. Therefore, steel structure manufacturers must have the corresponding enterprise qualification, production scale, technical capacity, mechanical equipment and advanced technology level.
 
 
 
Generally, the production process of steel structure is divided into: laying-out → blanking → jigsaw → cutting → group → submerged arc welding → drilling → assembly → rectifying molding → blanking of riveter parts → fabrication and assembly → welding and welding inspection → anti-rust treatment, painting, numbering → acceptance of components. In the steel structure production, according to the steel structure production process, grasp the key procedures for quality control, such as the control of the processing of key parts, the main components of the process, measures, the use of processing equipment, process equipment.
 
 
 
4 attach importance to quality control of welding engineering......
 
 
 
Welding engineering is the most important link in the fabrication and installation of steel structure. At present, most steel structures are manufactured with automatic submerged arc welder, some with semi-automatic gas shielded welder, and some with manual welding.
 
 
 
Welding quality problems are more in the manual weld, these problems are: welding tumor, slag, pores, not through welding, biting edge, wrong side, weld size deviation, no need to arc plate, welding deformation is not corrected, splash cleaning is not clean. In view of this situation, the steel structure before welding, check the certificate of approval to the electrode, use according to the specifications, welders must be certified license, weld surface must not have crack, flash, a, secondary weld shall have porosity, slag, crater crack, level of weld shall bite edge, under welding defects, such as a, level 2 weld nondestructive testing, in accordance with requirements in the weld and the parts of the rules to check the welder's seal. Unqualified weld shall not be disposed without authorization, and shall not be disposed after the modification process is determined. The number of weld repair in the same part shall not exceed 2 times.    
 
 
 
 
 
Installation quality control of steel components......
 
 
 
The steel structure shall be installed on site after the completion of the project. Prior to the installation of the steel structure, the quality of the members shall be checked, and permanent deformation and defects of the members shall be disposed when the allowable values are exceeded.
 
 
 
The installation of the steel column should check whether the pad iron under the column bottom plate is solid and flat to prevent the instability of the anchor bolt under the column bottom plate; Whether the column is vertical and has no displacement. In the installation project, temporary support measures should be taken before the structure has formed a stable system.
 
 
 
When the steel structure is installed to form a space fixed unit and is qualified for acceptance, the construction unit is required to fill the space of column bottom plate and foundation top surface with expanded concrete for a second time. Finally, check the perpendicularity and overall plane bending of the steel structure.
 
 
 
Quality control of steel structure fastener connection......
 
 
 
The quality control of fastener connection of steel structure mainly emphasizes the quality control of high strength bolt connection. The construction quality control of high-strength bolt connection project is completed from the following aspects:
 
 
 
6.1 first of all, steel structure engineering must pay attention to the machining quality of the friction surface of high-strength bolts and the protection before installation to prevent pollution and corrosion. In addition, anti-slip coefficient test of friction surface of high-strength bolts should be conducted before installation, factory certificate and batch number of high-strength bolts should be checked, and axial force test of high-strength bolts with different batch Numbers should be conducted regularly.
 
 
 
6.2 high strength bolts shall be installed free of tapping and hole expansion; Therefore, certain tire support die should be prepared to control the deformation of the steel structure and practical fixing measures should be taken to ensure the dimensional stability of the steel structure during transportation.  
 
 
 
6.3 during the installation of steel structure, the laminated contact surface shall be smooth, the contact surface shall be greater than 75%, and the edge gap shall not be greater than 0.8mm. The installation technology of high-strength bolts, including operation sequence, installation method, tightening sequence, initial twist and final twist, should be strictly controlled and checked. The torque wrench of screwing bolts should be calibrated. The end of the screw should be checked one by one, under the screw, over the screw should be added or replaced.  
 
 
 
 
 
7 steel structure derusting and coating engineering......
 
 
 
Steel structure derusting and coating is the most easily neglected part of steel structure engineering. Steel structure derusting is divided into manual derusting and mechanical derusting. The construction personnel shall adopt different derusting methods according to the requirements of the drawing and the derusting grade. Brush engineering quality control should be done in the steel structure before the brush, the surface of the painted components must not have welding slag, oil, water and burr and other foreign matters, the number of brush times and thickness should meet the design requirements. To coating material must have certificate of quality, project of coating of fireproof coating must be constructed by the construction unit that fire prevention place approves.
 
 
 
8 color steel plate construction quality control......
 
 
 
Color steel plate engineering is another important part of steel structure engineering. The quality of construction directly affects the use of steel structure engineering. At present, there are a lot of color steel plate.
 
 
 
But color plate construction problems are concentrated, such as: color plate joints, color plate accessories production and installation node processing is not fine, unreliable, maintenance of structural leakage, color plate perception quality uneven, deformation, scratch, pollution, etc..
 
 
 
Therefore, the pressure color plate installation quality control mainly includes: pressure color plate after entering the site, to conduct the appearance and qualification inspection, and review the installation accuracy of steel components related to the pressure plate construction and installation, purlin removal of the installation of weld coating and splash, and coated with anti-rust paint anti-corrosion treatment. Color plate installation, to prepare a reasonable installation process sequence.     
 
 
 
How to carry out quality control in the construction of steel structure engineering production and installation units is mainly through the relevant departments with quality control functions of full-time and part-time personnel in quality control to perform their own responsibilities. Its quality control method is mainly through the preparation and review of the relevant technical documents, reports, through the field process inspection and final inspection, and conduct necessary tests and other methods.