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  • 鋼結構吊裝安全防護措施
  • 本站編輯:杭州科寶鋼業有限公司發布日期:2019-11-22 21:20 瀏覽次數:
鋼結構安全操作的一般要求:
 
1.吊裝前應編制結構吊裝施工組織設計或制定施工方案,明確起重吊裝安全技術要點和保證安全技術措施。須經有關技術部門審核、批準后,方可進行。
 
2.施工隊負責人必須對工程的高處作業安全技術負責,并建立相應的責任制。
 
3.所有參加吊裝人員必須先進行體格檢查,年老體弱、患有高血壓、心臟病、癲癇病等患者不得從事吊裝工作。
 
4.在開始吊裝作業前,必須對吊裝人員進行安全技術教育和安全技術交底和培訓;配備好安全防護用品;熟悉吊裝工程內容、安裝方法、程序、使用的機具性能,安全技術要點和措施;學習有關安全技術操作規程和各項安全技術規章制度,并嚴格執行。
5.吊裝工作開始前,應組織有關部門,根據吊裝方案要求,對運輸和吊裝起重設備以及所用索具、吊環、夾具、卡具、纜風繩等的規格、技術性能進行仔細、全面的檢查或試驗;起重機械要進行試運轉,發現機件轉動不靈活或有磨損、損壞、松動等現象,應視情況修理或對已磨損嚴重或有隱患的及時更換;滑輪組和機械的軸承等轉動部分應加潤滑油,經檢查合格方可吊裝。重要構件在正式吊裝前,應進行試吊,檢查各部受力情況,當一切正常,才可進行正式吊裝。所有吊裝機具在吊裝進行中還應定期檢查,發現問題隨時處理。
 
6.高空作業中的安全標志、工具、儀表、電氣設施必須在施工前加以檢查,確認其是否完好,方能投入使用。
 
7.在施工前和施工過程中,要做好現場清理,清除一切障礙物,以利于吊裝安全操作。
 
8.吊裝作業應執行交接班制度,在交接班時,應進行吊裝作業有關安全注意事項等內容的交接工作。吊裝工具應在交接班時進行安全檢查,已磨損或有隱患的必須及時更換。
 
9.禁止斜吊,斜吊會造成超負荷及鋼絲繩出槽,甚至造成拉斷繩索。斜吊還會使重物在離開地面后發生快速擺動,可能碰傷人或其他物體。
 
10.起重機應避免帶載行走,如需要短距離帶載行走時,載荷不得超過允許起重量的70%,構件離地面不得大于50cm,并將構件轉至正前方,拉好溜繩,控制構件擺動。
 
11.起吊構件時,提升或下降要平穩,避免緊急制動或沖擊。專人指揮,信號清楚、響亮、明確,嚴禁違章作業。構件安裝后必須檢查其質量,確實安全可靠后方可卸扣。每天工作必須達到安全部位,方可收工。
 
12.嚴禁起吊重物長時間懸掛在空中,作業中遇突發故障應采取措施,將重物降落到安全地方,并關閉發動機或切斷電源后進行檢修。在突然停電時應立即把所有控制器撥到零位,斷開電源總開關,并采取措施,使重物降到地面。
 
13.起重機的吊鉤和吊環嚴禁補焊,當吊鉤吊環表面有裂紋嚴重磨損或危險斷面及有永久變形時必須預以更換。
General requirements for safe operation of steel structures:
 
 
 
1. Before hoisting, the organization and design of structural hoisting construction shall be compiled or the construction scheme shall be formulated, and the key technical points of hoisting safety and technical measures to ensure safety shall be clearly defined. Only after being examined and approved by the relevant technical departments can it be carried out.
 
 
 
2. The person in charge of the construction team must be responsible for the safety technology of the operation at the height of the project and establish the corresponding responsibility system.
 
 
 
3. All personnel who participate in hoisting must have a physical examination first. Patients who are old and weak, suffering from hypertension, heart disease, epilepsy and other diseases are not allowed to engage in hoisting work.
 
 
 
4. Before starting the hoisting operation, the hoisting personnel must be provided with safety technology education, disclosure and training of safety technology; Equipped with safety protective equipment; Familiar with hoisting project content, installation method, procedure, machine performance, safety technical points and measures; Learn safety technical operating procedures and safety technical rules and regulations, and strictly implement.
 
 
 
5. Before the lifting work starts, relevant departments should be organized to carry out a careful and comprehensive inspection or test on the specifications and technical performance of transportation and lifting equipment as well as the used rigging, lifting rings, clamps, clamps and wind ropes, etc. according to the requirements of the lifting plan; Lifting machinery to carry out test operation, found that the rotation of the parts is not flexible or wear, damage, loose phenomenon, should be repaired according to the situation or have serious wear or have hidden trouble in a timely manner to replace; Pulley block and mechanical bearings and other rotating parts should be added lubricating oil, after inspection qualified before lifting. Before the formal lifting of important components, the test should be carried out to check the stress of each part. When everything is normal, the formal lifting can be carried out. All lifting machines and tools in the lifting process should also be regularly checked, found problems at any time to deal with.
 
 
 
6. Safety signs, tools, instruments and electrical facilities must be checked before construction to confirm whether they are in good condition before being put into use.
 
 
 
7. Before and during construction, the site shall be cleaned and all obstacles shall be removed to facilitate safe lifting operation.
 
 
 
8. The hoisting operation shall implement the handover system. During the handover, the hoisting operation shall carry out the handover of safety precautions and other contents. Lifting tools should be in the transition of safety inspection, wear or hidden trouble must be replaced in a timely manner.
 
 
 
9. Prohibit slant crane, which will cause overload and wire rope groove, or even cause the rope break. The slant also causes the weight to swing quickly after it leaves the ground, possibly hitting someone or something else.
 
 
 
10. The crane shall avoid walking with load. If the crane needs to walk with load for a short distance, the load shall not exceed 70% of the allowable lifting weight, and the members shall not be more than 50cm from the ground.
 
 
 
11. When lifting components, lift or descend steadily to avoid emergency braking or impact. Specially-assigned personnel command, signal clear, loud, clear, no illegal operation. The quality of components must be checked after installation to ensure safety and reliability before shackle. Work every day must reach the safe place, can stop.
 
 
 
12. It is forbidden to lift heavy objects hanging in the air for a long time. In case of sudden failure during the operation, measures should be taken to land the heavy objects in a safe place, and the engine should be shut down or the power supply should be cut off for maintenance. In case of sudden power failure, all controllers should be immediately set to zero, disconnect the main power switch, and take measures to make heavy objects to the ground.
 
 
 
13. The lifting hook and lifting ring of the crane are strictly forbidden to repair welding. When there are cracks on the surface of the lifting ring of the lifting hook, serious wear or dangerous section and permanent deformation, it must be replaced in advance.